The Black History of Anesthesiology
William Thomas Green Morton (1819-1968) is often considered the first to discover general anesthesia and to pioneer its applications in surgery.
However, four and a half years before Morton’s breakthrough, a young man from the Southern states, Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878), became the first physician to operate with no pain, performing minor surgical and obstetric procedures under anesthesia using diethyl (sulfuric) ether.
Long's legacy is a testament to the silent, but significant role that Black Americans occupied in the history of medicine.
The Moor in European Heraldry
If you have ever done an online search on the Black history of Europe, chances are you have seen those two-dimensional cartoon silhouettes that preface this article at some point or another.
Our previous study on the reconquest of Spain and Portugal from Moorish control was an introduction to the African Moor in European heraldry. In this article, we will explore that topic further.
We will cover the history behind the heraldry, the artists who were involved, the historians who contributed to our understanding of these works, and the meaning of these images.
Eugene Burkins was born in St. Louis, Missouri. Apart from learning how to read and write, Burkins had no formal education. He started out from humble beginnings, working as a shoe shiner in Chicago.
He had no prior experience making or using guns. He had never seen the field of battle or donned a military uniform. And yet, he was able to learn rather quickly how to develop an improved form of military hardware that would be considered the zenith of war technology. It was enough to rival the workmanship of the most seasoned craftsmen in all the world.
So how did he do it? And how was Burkin's weapon used?
If you were to ask people at random on the street today "Who is the greatest musician of all time?", what would be their response?
Perhaps they will start with the most popular stars of our time. Some might reference the late "King of Pop" or the late "Queen of Soul". You can expect to hear about the 'gods' of Rock n' Roll.
A more sophisticated scholar of music history and theory is likely to drop the names "Mozart", "Beethoven", "Bach", "Chopin", "Tchaikovsky", "Vivaldi", "Handel", or "Haydn".
A crowd gathers outside the barbershop. More and more people chime in on what should have been an icebreaker between you and the old man who left to catch the bus.
Between the occasional jokes, it is clear that more and more interest is building in this debate. Spirits run high as each expert tries to cut off the other in what is arguably the greatest, most epic rap battle of the century.
But there is one note missing from this ensemble. You cannot take it anymore. Suddenly, you yell out "Dear God! Hasn't anyone heard the name of the great Blind Thomas or Blind Boone?"
Everyone turns around and stares at you in silence.
And you are just as confused as they are.
You proceed to tell them the stories of two blind men.
The Consequences of European Colonialism in Africa
Some say that colonialism was beneficial for Africans.
How European Exploits Shifted World Economics
Many of the resources of Africa are now in the hands of multinational corporations which generate high profits but pay little tax (For example: the largest mining company in the world by revenue, Glencore International AG, which is based in Switzerland). Whatever benefits they might bring to the people of Africa, can scarcely be determined.
Black Research Central
In-Depth Info on History and Science from another perspective.